1 Springer, N.P. and Van Weel, C. (1996) Homebirth BMJ 313:1276-1277

2 Campbell, R. and Macfarlane, A. (1994) Where to be born? The debate and the evidence National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit 2nd Edition

3 Young, G., Hey, E., Macfarlane, A., McClandish, R., Campbell, R., Chamberlain, G. (2000) Choosing between home and hospital delivery BMJ 320:798

4 Saunders, D., Boulton, M., Chapple, J., Ratcliffe, J. and Levita, J. (2000) Evaluation of the Edgware Birth Centre North Thames Perinatal Public Health

5 Johanson, R.B. and Menon B.K.V. (2001) Vacuum extraction versus forceps for assisted delivery (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, 2, 2001. Oxford: Update Software

6 Chamberlain, G., Wraight, A. and Crowley, P. (eds.) (1997)Home Births: The Report of the 1994 Confidential Enquiry by the National Birthday Trust Fund Parthenon Publishing Group

7 Downe, S., McCormick, C. and Beech, B. Labour interventions associated with normal birth. Br J Midwifery 2001;9:602-6.

8 Hodnett, E.D. (2001) Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

9 Hodnett, E.D., Gates, S., Hofmeyr, G.J and Sakala, C. (2003) Continuous support for women during childbirth (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

10 Singh D. and Newburn M. (2000) Access to Maternity Information and Support: The Experiences and Needs of Women Before and After Giving Birth, National Childbirth Trust

11 MIDIRS (2003) Support in Labour. Informed Choice for Professional Leaflet 1.

12 Hayles, B. (1991) Supporting the supporter New Zealand Coll. Midwives J. 5:15-16

13 Drife, J. (1999) Data on babies' safety during hospital births are being ignored BMJ 1999;319:1008

14 Bastian, H., Keirse, M.J.N.C. and Lancaster, P.A.L (1998) Perinatal death associated with planned home birth in Australia: population based study BMJ 1998;317:384-388

15 Thomas, P. (1998) Choosing a Home Birth AIMS pp8-9

16 Northern Region Perinatal Mortality Group (1996) Collaborative survey of perinatal loss in planned and unplanned home births BMJ 1996;313:1306-1309

17 Enkin, M., Keirse, M.J.N.C., Neilson, J., Crowther, C., Duley, L., Hodnett, E. and Hofmeyr, J. (2000) A guide to effective care in pregnancy and childbirth Oxford University Press, 3rd Edition

18 Wiegers, T.A., Keirse, M. J., van der Zee, J. and Berghs, G.A.H.(1996) Outcome of planned home and planned hospital births in low risk pregnancies: prospective study in midwifery practices in the Netherlands BMJ 1996;313:1309-1313

19 Ackermann-Liebrich, U., Voegeli, T., Gunter-Witt, K., Kunz, I., Zullig, M., Schindler, C. and Maurer, M. (1996) Home versus hospital deliveries: follow up study of matched pairs for procedures and outcome BMJ 1996;313:1313-1318

20 World Health Organisation (1985) Appropriate Technologies for Birth, Lancet 2:436-37

21 Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC). Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) Records. Subject to copyright © 2013, re-used with the permission of HSCIC. All rights reserved. Note: The English data on our website for years 2007-8 to 2012-13 have been calculated by Rod Gibson Associates Ltd for the BirthChoiceUK website. Official statistics are available at:

22 Information and Statistics Division, Scotland (2013) Births in Scottish Hospitals, year ending 31 March 2012 Available at: [Last accessed March 2014]

23 Maternity Statistics, Wales: Method of Delivery, 2003-2013 Additional reports from StatsWales Maternity. [Last accessed March 2014]

24 Year 2001 Report, Northern Ireland Perinatal Information Project

25 Gupta, J.K. and Nikodem, V.C. (2001) Women's position during second stage of labour (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

26 MIDIRS (2003) Positions in Labour and Delivery. Informed Choice for Professional Leaflet 5.

27 Hodnett, E.D. (2001) Home-like versus conventional institutional settings for birth (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

28 Llewelyn, S.and Osborne, K. (1990) Women's Lives Routledge

29 World Health Organisation (1997) Care in Normal Birth WHO WHO/FRH/MSM/96.24

30 Beech, B.A. (1997) Normal Birth - Does it exist? AIMS Journal. Vol. 9 No 2 (4-8)

31 Tucker, G. (1996) The National Childbirth Trust of Pregnancy, Birth and Parenthood London: NCT

32 Kitzinger, S. (1990) Episiotomy, Body Image and Sex Ch. 12 in Kitzinger, S. and Simkin, P. (eds.) Episiotomy and the Second Stage of Labour. Pennypress inc. 2nd edition.

33 Johanson, R.B., Wilkinson, P., Bastible, A. et al. (1993) Health after Childbirth: a comparison of normal and assisted delivery. Midwifery 9:161-168

34 Cohen, N.W., Estner, L.J. (1983) Silent Knife: Caesarean Prevention and vaginal Birth after Caesarean Bergin and Garvey: New York

35 Odent, M. (1984) Birth Reborn Fontana

36 Comport, M. (1990) Surviving Motherhood Ashgrove Press, Bath 2nd edition

37 Dalton, K., Holton, W. (1996) Depression after Childbirth Oxford University Press 3rd edition

38 MIDIRS (2003) Fetal heart rate monitoring in labour. Informed Choice for Professional Leaflet 2.

39 MIDIRS (2003) Breastfeeding or bottle feeding: helping women to choose. Informed Choice for Professional Leaflet 7.

40 Howie, P.W., Forsyth, J.S., Ogston, S.A., Clark, A. and Florey, C. du V.(1990) Protective effect of breast feeding against infection BMJ 1990;300:11-6

41 Wilson, A.C., Forsyth, J.S., Greene, S.A., Irvine, L., Hau, C. and Howie, P.W. (1998) Relation of infant diet to childhood health: seven year follow up of cohort of children in Dundee infant feeding study BMJ 1998; 316: 21-25

42 Duncan, B., Ey, J., Holberg, C.J., Wright, A.L., Martinez, F.D. and Taussig, L.M.(1993) Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis media Pediatrics 1993;91(5):867-72

43 Pisacane, A., Graziano, L., Mazzarella, G., Scarpellino, B. and Zona, G.(1992) Breast-feeding and urinary tract infection J Pediatr 1992;120(1):87-9

44 Lucas, A., Brooke, O.G., Morley, R., Cole, T.J. and Bamford, M.F.(1990) Early diet of preterm infants and development of allergic or atopic disease: randomised prospective study BMJ 1990;300:837-40

45 Heinig, M.J. and Dewey, K.G. (1997) Health effects of breast feeding for mothers: a critical review Nutrition Research Reviews 1997;10:35-36

46 World Health Organisation (2001) Expert Consultation on the optimum duration of exclusive breastfeeding: conclusions and recommendations WHO Systematic Review: Notes for Press No.7, 2 April 2001

47 Lucas, A. and Cole, T.J. (1990) Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis Lancet 1990;336:1519-23

48 Philipsen, T. and Jensen, N.H. (1989) Epidural block or parenteral pethidine as analgesic in labour; a randomized study concerning progress in labour and instrumental deliveries Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1989;30:27-33

49 Howell, C.J. (2001) Epidural versus non-epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

50 MIDIRS (2003) The use of epidural analgesia for women in labour Informed Choice for Professional Leaflet 6.

51 Russell, R. and Reynolds, F.(1996) Epidural infusion of low-dose bupivacaine and opioid in labour. Does reducing motor block increase the spontaneous delivery rate? Anaesthesia. 1996;51:266-73

52 United Kingdom Central Council for Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors (1994) Position Statement on Waterbirths UKCC, 6 October 1994

53 Nikodem, V.C. (2001) Immersion in water in pregnancy, labour and birth (Cochrane Review) In: The Cochrane Library, 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

54 Gilbert, R.E. and Tookey, P.A. (1999) Perinatal mortality and morbidity among babies delivered in water: surveillance study and postal survey BMJ;319:483-7

55 Balskas, J. and Gordon, Y (1990) Waterbirth Unwin

56 Beech, B.A.L. (1998) Choosing a water birth Association for Improvements in Maternity Services

57 National Childbirth Trust (1995) Labour and birth in water NCT

58 Eriksson, M., Mattsson, L.A. and Ladfors, L. (1997) Early or late bath during the first stage of labour: a randomised study of 200 women Midwifery 1997;13:146-8

59 Telfer, F.M. (1997) Anaesthesia and Operative Procedures in Obstetrics Ch.55 in Sweet, B.R. (ed) Mayes' Midwifery. Ballière Tindall 12th Edition

60 Chippington Derrick, D., Lowdon, G. Barlow, F. (1996) Caesarean Birth: your questions answered National Childbirth Trust

61 Hannah, M.E., Hannah, W.J., Hewson, S.A., Hodnett, E.D., Saigal, S. and Willan, A.R. (2000) Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial Lancet, 2000; 356: 1375-1383

62 Robinson, J (2001) Breech babies - Caesarean or vaginal birth? AIMS Journal Vol. 12 No. 4

63 Lilford, R.J., van Coeverden de Groot, H.A., Moore, P.J. and Bingham, P. (1990) The relative risks of caesarean section (intrapartum and elective) and vaginal delivery: a detailed analysis to exclude the effects of medical disorders and other acute pre-existing physiological disturbances Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 Oct;97(10):883-92

64 Morrison, J.J., Rennie, J.M. and Milton P.J. (1995) Neonatal respiratory morbidity and mode of delivery at term: influence of timing of elective caesarean section Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;102:101-6

65 Tiran, D. and Mack, S. (1999) Complementary therapies for pregnancy and childbirth WB Saunders 2nd Edition

66 Sutton, J. and Scott, P. (1996) Understanding and Teaching Optimal Foetal Positioning Bay Print Ltd, Tauranga, New Zealand. 2nd Edition

67 Al-Mufti, R., McCarthy, A. and Fisk, N.M. (1996) Obstetricians' personal choice and mode of delivery Lancet 1996;347:544

68 Dickson, M. J. and Willett, M. (1999) Midwives would prefer a vaginal delivery BMJ 319:1008

69 Paterson-Brown, S. (1998) Should doctors perform an elective caesarean section on request? - Yes, as long as the woman is fully informed BMJ 1998;317:462-465

70 Amu O, Rajendran S, Bolaji II (1998) Should doctors perform an elective caesarean section on request? - Maternal choice alone should not determine method of delivery BMJ 1998;317:462-465

71 Hall, J. (2001) Directory of freestanding low-risk maternity units in England Jean Duerden, Yorkshire Consortium of LSAs at Leeds Health Authority

72 Private communications

73 Odent, M. (1999) The Scientification of Love Free Association Books

74 Kitzinger, S. (1989) The Crying Baby Penguin

75 Weston, R. (2001) What is normal childbirth? - the midwife practitioner's view Practising Midwife Vol. 4 No. 6 p.13

76 Nolan, M. (2001) What is normal childbirth? - a consumer perspective Practising Midwife Vol. 4 No. 6 p.15

77 Breastfeeding in Scotland Guthrie Data The Inborn Errors Screening Laboratory, Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow.

78 BirthChoiceUK in association with the Department of Health's Statistics Division

79 The National Childbirth Trust. (2002) The NCT Birth Policy London: NCT.

80 Clinical Outcomes Working Group (December 2000), Clinical Outcome Indicators, Page 25

81 Alison Macfarlane, Miranda Mugford, Jane Henderson Birth Counts: Statistics of Pregnancy and Childbirth, The Stationery Office Books (2000).

82 Mortality Statistics: Childhood, infant and perinatal (Series DH3),

83 Birth Statistics: Births and patterns of family building England and Wales (FM1),

84 PERISTAT, Monitoring and Evaluation Perinatal Health,

85 National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 52 Number 10,

86 Bayerische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Qualitätssicherung, (Annual Report of the Bavarian Perinatal Survey 2001)

87 Home birth rates have been derived from information collected at birth registration provided to BirthChoiceUK by the Office for National Statistics.

88 Home birth rates have been derived from information collected at birth registration provided to BirthChoiceUK by the General Register Office of Scotland.

89 Home birth rates have been derived from information collected at birth registration provided to BirthChoiceUK by the Northern Ireland Research Statistics Agency (NISRA).

90 StatWales website.

91 Cost Reference documents: trust-elective-daycases.pdf, trust-elective-FCEs.pdf and trust-non-elective-FCEs.pdf to be found on the DHSPPS website.

92 Maternity Care Working Party (2007) Making normal birth a reality: consensus statement. Available at

93 Health and Social Care Information Centre (2013) NHS Maternity Statistics, England: 2012-13 Available at

94 NPEU (2011) Birthplace in England Research Programme. Available at

95 Davies J, Hey E, Reid W, et al. Prospective regional study of planned home births. BMJ 1996;313(7068):1302-6.

96 Edwards NP. Birthing autonomy: women's experiences of planning home births. London: Routledge; 2005.

97 Dodwell M and Newburn M. (2010) Normal birth as a measure of the quality of care: safety, effectiveness and women's experiences. NCT, London. Available at

98 Symon A., Winter C., Inkester M. et al. Outcomes for births booked under an independent midwife and births in NHS maternity units: matched comparison study. BMJ 2009; 338: b2060 doi:10.1136/bmj.b2060 Available (by subscription) at

99 Sandall J, Murrells T, Dodwell M, Gibson R, Bewley S, Coxon K, Bick D, Cookson G, Warwick C, Hamilton-Fairley D. (2014) The efficient use of the maternity workforce and the implications for safety and quality in maternity care: a population-based, cross-sectional study. Health Serv Deliv Res 2014;2(38)

References last updated 5 March 2015